dos emissions associated with the combustion of these fuels, continues to rise. Table 6-1 shows global total GHG emissions and U.S. fossil CO2 emissions over the last decade. The U.S. fossil CO2 emissions as a percent of global total GHG emissions has averaged nearly 10% during this time. Figure 6-2 shows global and U.S. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption between 1960 and 2020 for the three major fossil fuels and cement manufacturing (which releases CO2 through chemical processes). The large increases in global coal emissions since 2000 can mostly be attributed to China’s increase in coal fired power plants, while in the U.S. emissions from this fuel type continue to decline due in part to the competitiveness of natural gas and renewable sources of energy. CO2 emissions from global oil combustion have remained steady over the last decade while emissions from oil in the U.S. increased in recent years due primarily to the increase from new production in basins such as the Permian and Williston and offshore regions. CO2 emissions from natural gas have increased dramatically both globally and, in the U.S., due to increases in production and demand as a replacement fuel for coal. Table 6-2 shows global and U.S. fossil CO2 emissions from the combustion of three fuel types (coal, oil, and gas) and the U.S. share of these emissions between 2010 and the year of most recent available data (2018).
6.2 Estimated International Emissions
The EIA provides long-term (2018–2050) world energy and emissions projections in its International Energy Outlook (IEO). The most recent IEO that contains CO2 emissions data is the IEO2020, released in . The IEO provides several different scenarios to forecast future energy needs and associated carbon emissions. The Reference case reflects current trends and relationships among supply, demand, and prices in the future and is a reasonable baseline case to compare with cases that include alternative assumptions about the future energy system. Similar to the AEO report, IEO provides a Reference case that assumes energy consumption will rise nearly 50% between 2018 and 2050. Worldwide coal production and consumption is assumed to be steady at about 8 billion short tons, while demand for liquid fuels (oil) increases by 20%, and natural gas consumption increases more that 40% by 2050. Global energy related CO2 emissions are projected to increase by 0.6% per year from 2018 to 2050 from about 35 billion metric tons CO2 to about 43 billion metric tons. Although aggregate CO2 emissions from the energy sector are projected to continue to rise, the carbon intensity of future energy sources (i.e., the amount of CO2 emissions produced per unit of energy used) is projected to decrease indicating that sources of energy that do not produce CO2 emissions (e.g., renewables) will comprise a larger portion of meeting future energy demands. Figure 6-3 (EIA graphs) shows both the last decade of estimated CO2 emissions from global fossil fuel combustion and the projected emissions out to 2050. The data is displayed separately for countries that are a part of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), of which the U.S. is a part, and those that are not.
six.3 Annual U.S. Pollutants
The U.S. EIA provides information on energy related CO2 emissions in its Monthly Energy Review (MER). The edition of the MER shows that U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions fell by an estimated 11% from 5,140 Mt in 2019 to 4,571 Mt in 2020, largely because of reduced travel and other factors that led to less energy consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic. Emissions from coal combustion in the U.Sprised 19% of the energy consumption emissions while oil and gas consumption accounted for 45% and 36% of emissions, respectively.
|All over the world – All fuels||31,582||30,459||30,806||thirty-two,371||32,389||thirty-two,366||thirty two,375||thirty two,837||33,513|
|You.S. – All the fuels||5,352||5,128||4,903||5,039||5,047||4,929||cuatro,838||4,761||4,921|
|You.S. All of the Fuels Display||17.5%||16.3%||15.4%||15.6%||15.6%||15.2%||14.9%||fourteen.5%||14.7%|
|Worldwide – Coal||13,828||fourteen,584||14,714||15,020||14,989||fourteen,607||14,343||fourteen,506||14,766|
|You.S. – Coal||1,982||1,870||1,648||step one,705||step 1,699||1,465||1,356||step one,324||step one,270|
|U.S. Coal Display||fourteen.3%||12.8%||11.2%||eleven.4%||eleven.3%||ten.0%||9.5%||nine.1%||8.6%|
|Worldwide – Oils||ten,554||ten,573||10,669||ten,838||ten,889||eleven,141||11,228||eleven,354||11,415|
|You.S. – Petroleum||2,060||step 1,929||step one,870||1,926||step one,914||1,984||step 1,992||step one,981||dos,031|
|You.S Oil Share||19.5%||18.2%||17.5%||17.8%||17.6%||17.8%||17.7%||17.4%||17.8%|
|Around the world – Gas||6,038||six,123||six,239||6,325||six,322||6,427||six,592||6,759||eight,104|
|You.S. – Energy||step 1,287||step one,304||1,361||1,386||1,412||step 1,459||step one,470||step 1,437||step 1,601|
|U.S. Fuel Share||21.3%||21.3%||21.8%||21.9%||twenty-two.3%||22.7%||twenty-two.3%||21.3%||twenty-two.5%|